CRISPR gene-editing systems 3D animation PDF Ispis E-mail

>The CRISPR systems visualization project was created by Visual Science biologists and scientific visualization experts with support from the Skoltech Biotechnology faculty. The animation is based on molecular modeling and dynamics, which allowed us to produce accurate models of natural and engineered CRISPR complexes, as well as to visualize the interiors of the bacterial cell and human cell nucleus. The visualization demonstrates both natural (bacterial) and genetically-engineered CRISPR systems, and explains possibilities of using them for human gene editing.

About CRISPR and CRISPR-Cas9
     CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) are special regions in the bacterial DNA that store the fragments of the genomes of the parasites (bacteriophages) that previously infected this type of bacteria. CRISPR give bacteria the opportunity to detect and destroy foreign DNA and thus protect themselves from infections. The loci are sources of the crispr-RNAs, which serve as key components of the alien DNA destruction complexes, that also include effector DNA-cutting proteins. One of the best-studied CRISPR complexes uses the protein called Cas9.
     Scientists learned how to modify natural CRISPR-Cas9 system and program it to recognize almost any desired DNA sequence in human, animal, plant or any other cell. After the recognition CRISPR effector can bind the target DNA at programmed site, cut it or in case of additional modifications to the system, alter gene expression, remodel DNA spatial organization or mark desired regions of the genome. Native and engineered CRISPR—effectors are precise, adjustable and easy to use DNA-editing tools that have a tremendous potential for multiple applications in curing genetic diseases, designing new and improved crops, fighting pests and conducting cutting-edge basic research.

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